What is bariatric surgery? - My Doctor

Obesity, which is caused by a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits, has become a global health problem. Obesity can be caused not only by lifestyle factors but also by psychological, hormonal, and genetic factors. As a result, the prevalence of obesity is increasing day by day. Obesity can lead to health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychological disorders, sexual problems, and sleep apnea. Timely intervention is necessary to prevent serious health problems. Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective interventions that can be performed.

Bariatric surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that involves making changes to the digestive system to help people lose weight. It is usually recommended for people who are severely obese and have not been able to lose weight through diet and exercise alone. The surgery works by either reducing the size of the stomach, restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold, or by rerouting the small intestine to a smaller stomach pouch, which reduces the amount of calories the body absorbs. Bariatric surgery is a major procedure that requires significant lifestyle changes and should only be considered after other weight loss options have been tried and proven unsuccessful.

Bariatric surgery is performed on who?

Bariatric surgery is performed on individuals who are obese and have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher, or who have a BMI of 35 or higher with one or more obesity-related health problems such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, or joint problems. The surgery may also be an option for individuals who have tried other weight loss methods without success.

The risk factors that are required for bariatric surgery to be applied can be listed as follows:

  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Asthma
  • Reflux
  • Arthritis
  • Urinary Incontinence
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Hepatic Steatosis
  • Venous Ulcer

What are the types of bariatric surgery?

In bariatric surgery, the capacity and absorption of nutrients are reduced by intervention in the stomach and small intestine. Additionally, changes are made to create a feeling of fullness or to decrease the release of hunger hormones. The main types of operations used in bariatric surgery are as follows:

Gastric Balloon (Intragastric Balloon Application): In gastric balloon application, a silicone balloon filled with liquid is placed inside the stomach, reducing the volume of the stomach by half. This allows the patient to reach a feeling of fullness in a shorter amount of time and not consume excessive amounts of food. The balloon can be placed using endoscopic methods, or it can be swallowed and then inflated and filled with liquid under doctor supervision.

Gastric Sleeve Surgery: In gastric sleeve surgery, approximately 80% of the stomach is removed, leaving the remaining portion in the shape of a tube. Therefore, the name of the surgery is not related to a tube applied externally, but rather the section of the stomach that is irreversibly removed to form a tube. This reduces the volume of the stomach, causing early satiety, and also reduces the portion of the stomach that produces hunger hormones, leading to decreased hunger.

Gastric Bypass: In gastric bypass surgery, both the stomach and small intestine undergo structural changes. Approximately 30 ml of the stomach and the portion of the small intestine that connects to the large intestine are separated and then reconnected to each other. This changes the function of the stomach and reduces absorption from the small intestine.

Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD): Biliopancreatic diversion surgery is actually quite similar to gastric bypass. The main difference is that in BPD, the first and second portions of the small intestine are separated, resulting in a greater reduction in nutrient absorption. In BPD, both a large portion of the stomach and a portion of the small intestine are separated to reduce nutrient capacity and absorption.

Bariatric surgery prices

Bariatric surgery prices can vary from country to country and hospital to hospital. In addition, the surgical method, the patient’s weight, lifestyle, and other factors can also affect the price. Bariatric surgery is a major operation, so it is generally more expensive than other surgical procedures. However, in some countries and insurance companies, bariatric surgery expenses can be partially or fully covered. It is recommended that individuals considering bariatric surgery speak with their doctors or health insurance companies about pricing.

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